This course examines the challenges of state-building and the manifestations of armed conflict in the contemporary developing world. Surveying different cases and contexts, the course focuses on the role of state and non-state armed groups, the drivers of communal conflict, the historical dimensions of multifaceted state-building processes, and the legacy of colonial rule. Particular attention is paid to conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of the course is to equip students with a comparative understanding of the complex causes, characteristics, and manifestations of conflict in the developing world and its cross-cutting relations to contemporary international governance.